An excerpt from Claire Cain Miller, “As Women Take Over a Male-Dominated Field, the Pay Drops,” The New York Times, March 19, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/upshot/as-women-take-over-a-male-dominated-field-the-pay-drops.html, which addresses the pay gap phenomenon in different industries.
Many differences that contributed to the pay gap have diminished or disappeared since the 1980s, of course. Women over all now obtain more education than men and have almost as much work experience. Women moved from clerical to managerial jobs and became slightly more likely than men to be union members. Both of these changes helped improve wage parity, Ms. Blau’s and Mr. Kahn’s research said.
Yes, women sometimes voluntarily choose lower-paying occupations because they are drawn to work that happens to pay less, like caregiving or nonprofit jobs, or because they want less demanding jobs because they have more family responsibilities outside of work. But many social scientists say there are other factors that are often hard to quantify, like gender bias and social pressure, that bring down wages for women’s work.
An excerpt from Joan C. Williams “Sticking Women with the Office Housework,” The Washington Post, April 16, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2014/04/16/sticking-women-with-the-office-housework/.
But housework isn’t just something women are expected to do at home. In interview after interview with professional women for my recent book, “What Works for Women at Work,” I heard stories about what I call office housework: the administrative tasks, menial jobs and undervalued assignments women are disproportionately given at their jobs. They were expected to plan parties, order food, take notes in meetings and join thankless committees at far greater rates than their male peers were.
Such office housework holds women back, too — and not just because it undercuts their authority and devours time they could spend on more valued projects. It’s also a political tightrope for women. Saying no without seeming touchy, humorless or supremely selfish is a particularly tricky balancing act.
An excerpts from Kate Shellnutt, “The Pay Gap Is Worse for Pastor-Moms,” Christianity Today, August 3, 2017, https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2017/august-web-only/pay-gap-is-worse-for-pastor-moms.html.
Motherhood is the single biggest factor contributing to the pay gap between women and men. Even in the church, where marriage and families are celebrated—and, in many traditions, expected—female pastors are paid disproportionally smaller salaries if they’re married with kids, according to research published last month in the journal Sociology of Religion.
In 2016, married women and moms with kids at home earned 72 cents for every dollar made by men in the clergy. Their pay gap—28 percent less than men—was twice as big as single women’s, which was 12 percent less, or 88 cents on the dollar.