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And the Spirit Moved Them was written to demonstrate that the true origin of the modern American women’s rights movement was not the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848, but the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women held in New York City in 1837. Author Helen LaKelly Hunt gives a fascinating historical account of these early abolitionist suffragists, whose power as reformers and social justice advocates arose through the convergence of various key personalities and events, a common Christian faith and commitment to social justice, and the willingness to join with men who shared their beliefs and core values, to confront and challenge entrenched racial and sexual domination.  Read more
Scholars and informed Christians alike are well aware of Clement of Rome, Saint Augustine, and other “church fathers.” But what about those “church mothers” who likewise contributed to the growth and development of early Christianity? Women, such as Thecla, Perpetua, and Helena Augusta supported monastic communities with financial gifts, engaged in theological discourse and study, and inspired generations of believers with their examples of piety and devotion. Yet, before now, these important women have received relatively little attention from theologians and historians. Fortunately, the authors of this superbly researched study have helped readers better appreciate the importance of notable ancient Christian women, particularly in terms of the ways they shaped Christian belief and practice in the Late Roman Empire. Read more
Katy Scott
No Little Women: Equipping All Women in the Household of God, by Aimee Byrd, provides many practical challenges to female disciples and their leaders. It challenges women to become better equipped for ministry, learn and exercise discernment in their educational tools, and prompts them to take responsibility for becoming “good theologians with informed convictions” (178). However, because of the complementarian theology pushed in this book, it will prove to be a frustrating read for many egalitarians. Read more
How do we understand evangelical egalitarian scholarship and scholars? The idea includes interdependent Christian leaders in community serving Jesus while using the spiritual and natural gifts given each by God. We are envisioning something more than simply “Let the women participate,” or the opposite extreme: women now being the hierarchical leaders instead of men. We want to discuss creating opportunities for others, especially those underrepresented in the academy, so that women and men serve equally, interdependently, each leading by God’s gifting. This workshop will discuss some of the biblical principles important for ministry and present some examples, as well as include a practical brainstorming session. Read more
The cover photo shows an icon in which a group of church leaders display a rather large banner containing the opening lines of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of AD 381. Kevin Giles explains the Trinitarian Christology of this creed in the first article of this issue of Priscilla Papers.  Read more
There can be no denying that we have starkly opposing doctrines of the Trinity. Dr. Grudem and Dr. Ware argue on the basis of creaturely analogies for a hierarchically ordered Trinity where the Father rules over the Son, claiming this is historical orthodoxy and what the church has believed since AD 325. I argue just the opposite. On the basis of scripture, I argue that the Father and the Son are coequally God; thus the Father does not rule over the Son. This is what the church has believed since AD 325. You could not have two more opposing positions. There is no middle ground. Read more
Millard J. Erickson
For the past two decades, evangelical theologians have debated over one specific aspect of the relationship between members of the Trinity. One group insists that the Father is eternally the supreme member of the Trinity, necessarily and always possessing authority over the Son and the Holy Spirit, who are thus subordinate to him. The other view contends that the Son eternally possesses equal authority with the Father, but that for the period of his earthly ministry, he voluntarily became subject to the Father’s will. Similarly differing views are held regarding the authority of the Holy Spirit, although the discussion has not dealt extensively with the status of the third person. Both parties agree that all three persons are fully deity, and thus equal in what they are. Biblical, historical, philosophical and theological arguments have been presented on both sides, without reaching agreement. Whether or not the subordination itself is eternal, some have begun to wonder whether the debate over it might be. Read more
Many modern Western marriage rituals—from engagement, to the wedding ceremony, to post-union practices such as female surname change—are clearly patriarchal. Various customs, including engagement rings that act as modern dowries, separate wedding vows where the woman “loves, honors,  and obeys” and the man “loves, honors, and cherishes,” and unequal childrearing, create a system that oppresses women and subordinates them both within and outside of the home. The Christian ritual of marriage, however, redeems patriarchal marriage through emphasis on sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church1 and on covenant in Protestant denominations.2 Read more
Rosemary Hack
Evangelical Christians often fail to live up to the biblical standards to which they ascribe. Unconscious and inconsistent behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs (recognized and unrecognized) are ever-present. Though striving to follow Christ and be filled with the Holy Spirit, our behavior and attitudes fail to adequately represent Christ. This article addresses habitual abusive behavior perpetrated by professing Christian men (and sometimes women1) against women. Many of the men mentioned herein do not seem to think such abuse is inconsistent with their lives as Christians, and often as Christian leaders.2 Read more
The CSB makes some improvements over its ancestor, the HCSB (and over the English Standard Version as well), in its translation of gender language. In contrast, the various texts which tend to form and bolster a person’s view of women in Christian leadership tend strongly toward complementarian views. Evangelical egalitarians will thus continue to prefer translations such as the NRSV, NLT, TNIV, NIV 2011, and CEB.   Read more

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