This study on the prophetess Huldah as found in 2 Kings 22 and 2 Chronicles 34 will include a background study of prophets and prophecy of the Old Testament. This study will include a general definition and role of a prophet as nabi and prophetess as nebiah. Other prophetic roles such as roeh and hozeh (seer) will not be included. Also, there is a short study on the message of the prophet and how a true or false prophet is discerned.
Huldah is listed in rabbinical literature as one of seven prophetesses including Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, and Esther. Even though a detailed study of each of these prophetesses would be beneficial and interesting to the writer of this paper, only Huldah in her role as prophetess will be discussed.
Who Were Prophets And Prophetesses?
Who were the prophets and prophetesses in Scripture? Prophets and prophetesses are listed throughout the Old and New Testaments. These persons were called prophets and prophetesses because each claimed to be communicating a divine message. The broad use of the term “prophet” allows such Old Testament people as Abraham, the priest Aaron, and the singer Jeduthun to be called prophets even though the Bible does not record a specific call of any of them to the prophetic office.1
According to the Talmud, Moses was “master of the prophets” and no prophet after him succeeded as Moses did in penetrating into the nature of Yahweh by communing with him and receiving His divine message.2
Since Moses is the “master prophet” there is room for many prophets and prophetesses throughout the Old Testament. According to rabbinical tradition, the number of prophets is innumerable and could be as high as double the number of the children of Israel who went out of Egypt. Prophets came from every tribe (Suk. 27b). However, only those prophets who had prophecies containing a lesson for future generations were recorded. Rabbinical tradition states that there were forty-eight Hebrew prophets, seven Gentile prophets, and seven prophetesses. The prophetesses were Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Sarah, Hannah, Abigail, and Esther (Megilloth 14a).3
Definition of terms. The Hebrew word nabi is the most common designation of a male prophet or spokesman. A female prophet or prophetess is nebiah. In the Old Testament five women are designated as nebiah: Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron (Exodus 15:20); Deborah, the judge (Judges 4:4); the wife of Isaiah (Isaiah 8:3); Huldah, who was consulted by King Josiah (II Kings 22:14 and II Chronicles 34:22); and Noadiah, a false prophetess who opposed Nehemiah (Nehemiah 6:14). Stanley Grenz states that “the reference to false female prophets also suggests the ongoing presence of true female prophets.”4 It is a matter of scholarly debate whether Isaiah’s wife was a prophetess or was listed as a nebiah because she was the wife of the prophet Isaiah. Since both males and females are created in the image of God, it is believed that God would choose both prophets and prophetesses to proclaim the words that proceed from his very being. It is a matter of debate whether Isaiah’s wife was a prophetess or listed as a nebiah because she was the wife of the prophet Isaiah.
The derivation of nabi has been a controversial issue. Some scholars say this term means to “bubble up, boil forth,” and thus a prophet would pour forth, words as those who speak fervently from their mind or under divine inspiration such as poets and prophets. This definition of nabi would indicate that prophets were actively uttering revelations from God’s spirit in ecstatic speech. Some scholars describe this as speaking enthusiastically, to utter cries, and make more or less wild gestures.5 Other scholars would say that the mood was passive and the prophets were receiving God’s speech and then proclaiming it. This would emphasize the reception of the divine communication by the nabi.6
The plural form of prophet in Hebrew is nebiim. This plural word is used for groups of prophets, true and false prophets, and male or female prophets operating individually.7 In the New Testament, the Greek form of the word “prophetess” is prophetis and refers to Anna (Luke 2:36-38), the prophetess who recognized and proclaimed Jesus to be the Messiah, and Jezebel (Rev. 2:20), the temptress who called herself a prophetess.8 In Acts 21: 9, it is recorded that Philip’s four daughters prophesied (parthenoi propheteousai) and Paul even made special provisions for women who prophesy in church (1 Cor.11:5).9 Peter quoted Joel 2:28 saying that both sons and daughters would prophesy when the Messiah came (Acts 2:18). Some biblical scholars consider Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist and Mary, the mother of Jesus, to be prophetesses. Elizabeth prophesied about Jesus’ birth when Mary visited her. Also, Mary’s words in the Magnificat are often considered as prophecy.10
Therefore, a general definition of prophet or prophetess is a person who acts as a mouthpiece for God, receiving a message from him and proclaiming it in accordance with his commands.11 However, this term could also be used of one who pretended or actually believed that he or she was a mouthpiece of God. This definition would also point out the fact that prophecy was not exclusively predictive. A prophet was both an intermediary and an intercessor.
Who Is A True Prophet Or Prophetess?
Moses set forth standards to determine whether a person was a true or false prophet/prophetess. A true prophet must speak in the name of the Lord (Deuteronomy 18:2022). A true prophet may produce a sign or wonder (Deuteronomy 13:1-2), but of course, Moses knew full well from dealing with the Egyptians that signs and wonders could be counterfeited. A prediction given by a true prophet may be visibly fulfilled as in Deuteronomy 18:22 where it reads, “If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the Lord does not take place or come true, that is a message the Lord has not spoken.” Another very important test for a true prophet is whether his or her prophecy is in agreement with previous revelations (Deuteronomy 13:1-5). A person might claim to speak for the Lord, might perform miracles, and might give a correct prophecy, but if the revelation is not in line with what God has revealed previously, then that person might be suspect as a true prophet/prophetess.12
Biblical scholars have also developed standards from Scripture to recognize false prophets. False prophets tried to comfort the people of God instead of applying God’s warnings and threats.13 They fostered illusions by advocating Realpolitik and gaining popularity and power through this syncretistic and optimistic program. The false prophets provided solutions for the political, economic, and social problems. The false prophets also lived and worked for a human ideal or vision. The hermeneutical framework of the false prophets was different from that of the true prophets. The false prophets “had divorced ‘redemption’ and ‘creation’ and thereby formed a definite understanding of what God could and could not do, based on their interpretation of God’s covenant promises and the place of theocratic institutions in Israel.”14 The true prophets presented God as creator and sustainer of the universe who ruled over His creation and over nations. False prophets guarded the status quo and taught humanity centered morality.15
Delivery Of The Prophetic Message
Many prophets spoke their messages orally before individuals or groups. Several prophets illustrated their words with symbolic object lessons as when Jeremiah broke a clay pot to depict God’s destruction of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 19), and Ezekiel cut off his hair to depict what would happen to Jerusalem (Ezekiel 5:1-2). Some of the prophecies were selected, arranged, and edited for publication in written form. The prophets’ messages were called the word of God, an oracle or an utterance, or a burden from God. The “word of the Lord came to me” is recorded over two hundred times in the Old Testament as a technical formulation for prophetic revelation.16
Huldah, Prophetess Of God
Some background. Huldah was a prophetess (nebiah) during King Josiah’s reign (640-09). The story of King Josiah and Huldah is found in two books of the Old Testament, II Kings 22:14-20 and II Chronicles 34:1-35.
In Hebrew, her name means “weasel.”17 According to rabbinical tradition, the reason she was given the unattractive name was because she referred to King Josiah as a “man” and not a “king” when she declared “tell the man that you sent to me” (II Kings 22:15). Also, within Jewish tradition (Sifre, Num.78; Meg.14a,b) it is recorded that Huldah was a relative of Jeremiah and that both she and Jeremiah were descendants of Rahab of Jericho.18 This same tradition also states that Rahab married Joshua and because of her bravery the Lord allowed her familial line to include priests and eight prophets including Jeremiah and Huldah (Meg.14b).19 The Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament (Matthew 1:5) lists Rahab as one of the ancestors of Jesus, which would surmise that Huldah was also of the same lineage as Jesus the Messiah.
She was the wife of Shallum the son of Tikvah (or Tokhath in II Chronicles 34:22), who was the son of Harhas and he was the wardrobe keeper of the king (II Kings 22:14). It is difficult to pinpoint who Shallum was as “Shallum” must have been a fairly common name. There are fifteen Shallum’s (also known as Meshullum or Shillem) listed in the Old Testament. Shallum was the uncle of the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 32:6-7). Also, Huldah was the mother of Hanamel who sold a piece of his family’s land at Anathoth to Jeremiah (Jeremiah 32:6-15). Huldah and Shallum lived in the second district of Jerusalem (II Kings 22:14) which is generally accepted as the northern extension of Jerusalem. This district was probably developed as a residential area for palace and temple personnel after the building of the temple.20 At the time of King Josiah’s reign, the second district would have been located west of the palace and temple sitting on top of the upper Tyrolean Valley depression.21
Huldah is the only prophetess mentioned during the period of the monarchy and only one of two prophetesses within Deuteronomic tradition, the other being Deborah.22
According to the Targum on II Kings 22:14, Huldah also conducted a mishneh (an academy or college [KJV]) in Jerusalem in the Second District.23 Some scholars theorize that the Gate of Huldah in the temple (Mid. 1:3) was formerly the gate leading to Huldah’s academy (Rashi, II Kings 22:14).24 Some rabbinical tradition contends that not only did Huldah conduct an academy in Jerusalem, but she also taught oral doctrine.25 Great respect for Huldah was shown by the rabbis who declared that the Western Wall, the Gate of the Priests, and the Huldah Gate were never to be destroyed.26 Even Huldah’s tomb is reported to be located on the Mount of Olives.27 Only King David’s and Huldah’s graves were ever allowed within the city of Jerusalem (Tosef., Neg. vi.).28 Huldah is even listed in a midrash that in Paradise she rules seven sections for the souls of pious women.29
The Targum goes on to describe Huldah’s husband Shallum as a man of noble descent and very compassionate. He would go outside the city limits daily carrying a pitcher of water to give a drink to travelers. According to rabbinical tradition it was a reward for his good deeds to strangers that his wife was a prophetess.30
It is not surprising that rabbinical tradition has interpreted Huldah as a prophetess only as a result of a reward for her husband’s good deeds. The era that Huldah prophesied is known for its patriarchy and denigration of women, not only in the Israelite world, but also throughout the Greek, Roman, and Semitic worlds. Yet it is quite extraordinary that women prophetesses of the Old Testament were held in such high esteem. In the time that Huldah prophesied, before Jesus, Jewish women were considered so low that a Jewish man would thank God each morning that he was born a man and not born a woman.31 Jewish women were required to keep their heads covered in deference to their husbands and required some women to wear head coverings even in their homes so that their children could not see them.32 They were not allowed to enter the temple except in the outer courts and worse, they were not even allowed in the outer courts if the women were menstruating or within forty days after giving birth to a male child or eighty days after the birth of a daughter (Leviticus 15:19-33). These demeaning rules included the transfer of the daughter in marriage from father to husband as part of a contract of ownership.33 She was required to obey her husband in all matters and show deference to him such as standing behind him while he ate.34 Many times there was sadness in the home when a female was born instead of a son and in case of danger the husband must be saved first, then the sons, followed by the wives and daughters.35 Josephus, the Jewish historian, recorded these words about women: “The woman, says the Law, is in all things inferior to man.”36 One rabbi wrote that it would be better that the Torah be burnt than be spoken from the lips of a woman.37 In fact, she was not allowed to study the Torah.38 Jewish men in Paul’s day were warned not to sit among women because evil comes from them like a moth emerging from clothes.39 Later rabbis concluded that God himself avoided speaking with a woman.40 Men were strongly advised to avoid all possible contact with women except what was necessary for the procreation of children.41 Foreign women were thought to be especially dangerous.42 Rabbinic literature, even more than the Old Testament, expressed a stridently misogynistic attitude toward women. Women were described not only as evil temptresses but also as witches and nymphomaniacs.43 They were further caricatured as lazy, greedy, vain, and frivolous.44
With these rabbinical teachings about women, it is not surprising that the traditional Jewish interpreters would relate Huldah as being gifted as a prophetess only because of her husband’s good deeds, not because God called her and trusted her to be his prophetess. In spite of the demeaning rabbinical traditions concerning the female gender, God chose Huldah and other women throughout the Old Testament to authoritatively bring forth His word.
Huldah And King Josiah
The story of King Josiah’s reformation and his interaction with Huldah is located in II Kings 22-23 and II Chronicles 34-35. The two narratives of this reformation led by King Josiah display some differing details. It seems that the reformation of Judah may have begun as early as Josiah’s eighth year (II Chronicles 34:3, about 633/632 B.C.) when the decision had been made to shift national policy. In Josiah’s twelfth year (629/628 B.C.) he began his sweeping reforms to control a part of Northern Israel. Some scholars think that he was able to gain control of Megiddo, Joppa, Samaria, and Gilead.45
The reformation process described in II Kings 22:3-23:25 portrayed the reform entirely as an outcome of the discovery of the Book of the Law in Josiah’s eighteenth year, whereas the Chronicles version described a step-by-step process beginning in Josiah’s eighth year and reaching its full momentum in his twelfth year.46
According to II Kings 22:3, the reform took place in Josiah’s eighteenth year (622 B.C.) when in the course of repairs to the temple, a copy of the Book of the Law was discovered by Hilkiah the High Priest (who probably was the great-grandfather of Ezra the Scribe47 and according to tradition was the brother of Jeremiah48). Hilkiah gave the Book of the Law to Shaphan, the king’s secretary. Shaphan (grandfather of Gedaliah who was appointed as governor of Palestine by Nebuchadnezzar49) took the book to King Josiah and read from it.
King Josiah was terribly upset when he heard the words and tore his robes. He said the Book of the Law showed that God was very angry with them because their fathers had not obeyed the words. He gave the order for his royal court, including Ahikam (son of Shaphan and the father of Gedaliah); Achbor (father of Elnathan who was present at Jeremiah’s reading of the scroll to Jehoiakim, Jeremiah 36:12 and the grandfather of King Jehoiachin, II Kings 24:8); Asaiah; Shaphan; and Hilkiah the High Priest. The order was to go to Huldah, the prophetess, and ask her what she thought about this newly discovered Book of the Law. It was probably the Book of Deuteronomy, but could have been the entire Pentateuch. De Wette, a German scholar of the nineteenth-century, is credited as the first scholar to identify the newly discovered Book as Deuteronomy, but this thought was prevalent throughout the centuries and even the Talmud declares that King Josiah read the passage of Deuteronomy 28:16.50
Hilkiah, the High Priest and the royal court asked her whether this was a true Book of the Law of God. Huldah responded saying, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel...” and began to tell this royal entourage that what is written in the Book is true and is from the Lord. She validated the Book of the Law to render divine judgment upon the people and blessing upon the king and this validation may have been the beginning of the canon. Huldah declared the written word to be the Word of God, and the people and the king heeded her declaration.51 In this validation process, she gave an oracle of judgment and then gave an oracle of salvation. Huldah told the High Priest and the royal messengers that since the Lord saw Josiah tear his robes in anguish, saw him humbled, and saw him weep in His presence, the Lord would keep him from seeing any destruction or disaster during his reign and that he would be buried in peace. When these men heard Huldah’s prophetic words from God, they reported it back to King Josiah. He responded by enlarging his reformation to include the temple, priests, and altars throughout Judah, extending into Samaria and Bethel. King Josiah was killed in Megiddo by Pharoah Necco and his body was brought back to Jerusalem in a chariot and buried in peace in his own tomb. II Kings 23:25 states “neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the Lord as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses.”
Did God disapprove when King Josiah sought the help of a woman prophet instead of Huldah’s prophetic/priestly contemporaries such as Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Nahum, or Hilkiah the High Priest? No, in fact, the passage seems to declare that King Josiah was a truly good king who loved, believed, obeyed, and trusted God. God spoke to King Josiah through the hearing of both the words of the Book of the Law and Huldah’s prophecy, and the King was rightly obedient to both.
The other narrative of this story is in II Chronicles 34 and 35. This passage is considered by some biblical scholars to be closer to the true version of the story of Josiah’s reign.52 Keil and Deliztsch believe that the two narratives agree in the essential points, but the Chronicles passage is “chronologically more exact.”53 This passage declares that Josiah became king in his youth and he reigned in Jerusalem for thirty-one years. In the eighth year of his reign, he began to seek after God and by the twelfth year of his reign, he was purging Judah and Jerusalem of pagan idols and altars. In the eighteenth year of his reign he sent Shaphan his secretary to repair the temple. The money for these repairs was given to Hilkiah the High Priest. When the money was being taken out of the temple, the Book of the Law was found by Hilkiah. He gave the Book of the Law to Shaphan, who in turn took it to King Josiah and read it to him. As in the II Kings passage, King Josiah told Shaphan, Hilkiah, and other male royal court members to go to Huldah, the prophetess and ask her thoughts on this Book of the Law. Huldah gave the prophetic formula of, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel says...” followed by an oracle of judgment and an oracle of salvation.
Josiah believed her pronouncement that the Book of the Law was true and that God would send all the curses that He had promised in this Book. However, because the King was truly repentant and humble for the sins of his ancestors, God issued a reprieve of the curses. King Josiah was told that he would be buried in peace and his eyes would not see the disaster that would be brought upon this place.
In the first part of Huldah’s prophecy, she seemed to have a disregard for Josiah’s earlier reforms as these reforms had not transformed the people. The words of condemnation from God, through His prophetess Huldah, spurred Josiah to make even wider and more comprehensive reforms. Josiah responded to the Book of the Law, and to Huldah’s prophecy, by going to the temple in Jerusalem and reading the Book of the Covenant (also called the Book of the Law) to all the elders, priests, and Levites. He renewed his covenant with the Lord by promising to follow the Lord and keep his commandments, regulations, and decrees with all his heart, and all his soul, and to obey the words of the covenant written in the Book. He then had everyone in Jerusalem pledge himself or herself to the renewed covenant. A magnificent Passover was held that brought the people and the priests back to a true remembrance of God and his redemptive work in delivering his people from Egyptian slavery.
Huldah’s Timeless Influence
Huldah’s leadership and prophetic gift has influenced theological debate throughout the ages. Even the early church used Huldah’s prophetic leadership to ordain women to sacred office. The Apostolic Constitutions (8:20), a collection of ecclesiastical regulations and liturgical materials written in the late fourth and early fifth centuries, contained a prayer for deaconess ordination:
Creator of man and woman, who filled Deborah, Anna, and Huldah with the Spirit...look upon our servant who is chosen for the ministry and grant your Holy Spirit.54
John Calvin challenged his student, John Knox, concerning whether God would accept a woman as head of a government. Calvin recorded his position in a letter to a friend:
[T]wo years ago John Knox asked me in a private conversation what I thought about the government of women. I candidly replied...that there were occasionally women so endowed, that the singular good qualities which shone forth in them made it evident that they were raised up by divine authority; either that God designed by such examples to condemn the inactivity of men, or for the better setting forth his own glory. I brought forth Huldah and Deborah.
Works of John Knox, vol. 4, p.35755
A century after Calvin’s death, the Quakers were the first Christian denomination to advocate the equality of men and women. George and Margaret Fox were the founders of the Society of Friends (Quakers). George stated why the Quakers believe in equality, “There are elder women in the truth as well as elder men in the truth; and these women are to be teachers of good things; so they have an office as well as the men...Deborah was a judge; Miriam and Huldah were prophetesses....”56
Elizabeth Stanton, the mother of Women’s Rights and the Suffrage Movement, used the example of Huldah to quench the fiery darts of biblical texts that were hurled at her to prove that God ordained domination of women.57
William E. Phipps concludes an article on Huldah in Biblical Review with this thought-provoking idea:
It is time to restore Huldah to her rightful place. She was the first to place a seal of approval on a scroll, certifying that it contained Yahweh’s genuine message. She deserves to be honored as the patron saint of textual critics across the ages who seek to validate what is divinely inspired.58
Huldah was a woman capable, chosen, and called of the Lord to be his prophetess, to be a nebiah. She was deemed competent of discerning divine will by King Josiah, his male royal court, and Hilkiah, the High Priest of Jerusalem. She was preferred by King Josiah above Hilkiah, the High Priest; Jeremiah, the main prophet of Jerusalem; Zephaniah; and Nahum to give him the words of God that would spur further reform and repentance in the kingdom and that would declare Scripture as true. One cannot find any disputations against Huldah’s prophecies to King Josiah by her contemporary prophets including Jeremiah, Zephaniah, nor Nahum. The two passages cited, in II Kings and II Chronicles, clearly show that God does speak through a female, and that she is not under the authority of a man when she pronounces prophecies of the Lord. Despite rabbinical tradition, Huldah was a prophetess called by God to proclaim his word. She was not called to be a prophetess only as a result of her husband’s good deeds.
Huldah and her prophecies are consistent with the tests of a true or false prophet as defined by Moses in the book of Deuteronomy. Her prophecy was fulfilled in that Josiah did not see the destruction of the kingdom and he was buried in peace. Her revelations were consistent with former prophets and she did not speak some esoteric prophecy or some “sweet words.” She spoke with authority, both oracles of judgment and salvation, and used the classical prophetic introduction, “thus says the Lord the God of Israel.” She was a prophetess of Jerusalem chosen by God to speak his words that brought reformation and transformation within his kingdom. She also certified that the lost scroll was truly the Word of the Lord. The two passages in II Kings and II Chronicles clearly show that God does choose women to lead and to speak prophetically, even to a king and to a High Priest. She was not under the authority of a man to pronounce these prophecies of the Lord. Her only authority was God who required that she speak forth his word. Huldah’s courage, her leadership, and her prophetical life has influenced ecclesiastical polity and political status for women throughout the ages.
Even though there were fewer women prophets than male prophets, this does not indicate that God was compelled to use them because there were no men available, nor were they an exception to the rule. Women prophets, like men, were called and chosen of God at his discretion and in accordance with his will. It is often pondered why God did not appoint more women to lead his kingdom and prophesy, but perhaps “because of certain physical limitations, such as home duties, the mores or binding customs of that society and the physical abuse heaped on the prophets, the Lord did not call as many women as men at that time, but call them He did, and still does.”59
Since the Bible is inspired by God and is authoritative, then truly God does call women like Huldah, Miriam, Deborah, Anna, and Philip’s daughters and a host of other women listed within the Old and New Testaments to be prophetesses and to be leaders within the kingdom of God. Our God is the One who chooses who will speak for him, both male and female. You may be chosen. Be ready to speak the word of the Lord.
- G. V. Smith, “Prophet,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986), 986.
- Louis Isaac Rabinowitz, “Prophets and Prophecy,” in Encyclopedia Judiaca, vol. 13 (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1996), 1176.
- Stanley J. Grenz and Denise Muir Kjesbo, Women in the Church (Downer’s Grove: IVP, 1995), 70.
- “Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess,” in Catholic Encyclopedia. Web page available from http://www.newadvent.org/ cathen/12477a.htm>.
- R. Laird Harris, Gleason Archer, and Bruce Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, vol. 2. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), 544.
- Smith, 988.
- Nola J. Opperwall, “Prophetess,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 3. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 1004.
- Archibald Thomas Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. 3 (Nashville, TN: Broadman, 1930), 363.
- Ernest B. Gentile, Your Sons and Daughters Shall Prophesy: Prophetic Gifts in Ministry Today. (Grand Rapids, MI: Chosen Books, 1999), 132-33.
- A. A. MacRae, “Prophets and Prophecy,” in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, vol. 4 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 902.
- Ibid., 886.
- Willem A. VanGemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1990), 63.
- Ibid., 64.
- Ibid., 65.
- Smith, 999.
- Aaron Rothkoff, “Huldah.” Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 8 (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1996), 1063.
- “Huldah,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- “Rahab,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>. Also, “Rahab,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 4 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988), 33.
- John Gray, I and II Kings: A Commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963), 660.
- Duane L. Christensen, “Huldah and the Men of Anathoth: Women in Leadership in the Deuteronomic History,” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers, No. 23 (1984), 399.
- “Huldah” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- “Jerusalem” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- “Jerusalem—Synagogues and Schools” in Jewish Encyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- “Paradise,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- “Shallum,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- Lorry Lutz, Women as Risk-Takers for God (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997), 29.
- Elizabeth M. Tetlow, The Status of Women in Greek, Roman, and Jewish Society (orig. pub. by Paulist Press, 1986). Web page, available from ">www.womenpriests.org/classic/tetlow1.htm>.
- John Bright, A History of Israel, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1981), 317.
- David A. Glatt-Gilead, “The Role of Huldah’s Prophecy in the Chronicler’s Portrayal of Josiah’s Reform.” Biblica 77. no.1 (1996): 16-31.
- “Hilkiah,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- Hilkiah,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1982), 713.
- “Gedeliah,” in JewishEncyclopedia.com (Web page online); available from ">www.jewishencyclopedia.com>.
- Willem A. VanGemeren, ed., “Josiah,” in New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, vol. 4 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997), 820.
- Phyllis Trible, “Huldah’s Holy Writ,” Touchstone (Jan. 1985): 9.
- C .F. Keil and F. Delitsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978 reprint), 488.
- “The Ordination of Women Deacons According to the Apostolic Constitutions,” in WomenPriests.org (Web page online); Available from ">www.womenpriests.org/traditio/deac_con.htm>.
- William E. Phipps, “A Woman Was the First to Declare Scripture Holy.” Bible Review 6 (April 1990): 14-15, 44.
- Ibid, 16.
- Gentile, 59.