Many scholars have asserted that Artemis of the Ephesians was a fertility goddess—but the evidence for that view is several centuries after the apostle Paul. So who was Artemis Ephesia at the time of the earliest Christians, and what, if any, ramifications are there for how we understand 1 Timothy?
1 Timothy 2 is often taken for granted as “the” text that clearly bars women from holding positions of leadership in the church. The debate at large is too frequently reduced to the meaning of terms such as “authority” and “teaching,” as well as the grammatical relationship between them. Although these are an important part of the larger discussion, in this workshop Allison Quient proposes another angle. Using a theological interpretative approach, she provides evidence of a typological relationship between Eve and Christ and discusses some of the implications for our understanding of human power and identity.
Sadly, those who cite Paul as an opponent of women's equality overlook the many examples of women leaders building the church beside the apostle. This workshop will show how 1 Timothy 2:11-15 and 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 are eddies off the stream of Paul’s egalitarian teachings and practices.
Paul’s words in 1 Corinthians 7:4 constitute Scripture’s only mention of the common Greek word for “authority” (exousia) in clear reference to husbands and wives in marriage. This radical denouncement of either spouse insisting on personal “authority” over her or his own body in marital intimacy is a stunning reversal of the cultural norm of Paul’s day—as well as throughout the majority of church history. What does his bold statement mean in its biblical context, and what does it say about Christian mutuality in both marriage and singleness today?
While we should be cautious in our society of affairs, divorce, and casual sex, the time has come to look beyond our societal issues and ask whether that fear and suspicion among brothers and sisters is all we can hope for in the family of Christ. We need diverse perspectives in all aspects of society—even in our interpersonal relationships.
A common criticism is that gender-accurate Bible translation tactics, such as using "brothers and sisters" instead of "brothers," moves English Bibles away from the teaching, intent, and tone of the biblical authors. This workshop demonstrates that the opposite is true.
1 Timothy 2:8-15 is the primary verse that has been used to exclude women from teaching and leadership in the church. However, a careful examination of the passage in its context shows that it is most likely addressing false teaching and myths about marriage and childbirth that were spreading from house to house. As in 1 Corinthians 11:34, Paul wants women to be taught at home, as he corrects behavior and content, and answers a central concern of all women historically: How do we deal with maternal mortality?
Some biblical passages are difficult enough that even seasoned interpreters do not insist that their interpretation is correct. 1 Timothy 2:15, with its comment about women being saved through childbearing, is among these notoriously difficult passages. Nevertheless, this lecture surveys a few good theories about the meaning of 1 Timothy 2:15. More importantly, however, this verse serves as a humbling reminder of the vast cultural and chronological gap between the first and twenty-first centuries. Finally, it will be argued that the prior verse (1 Timothy 2:14) is just as difficult, and interpreters therefore should not demand that 2:14 be the guiding light to chapter two.
In this lecture, Dirkey traces the beginnings of patriarchy from the fall through the patriarchal years of the Old Testament. He argues that both Jesus and Paul were against patriarchy before ending by explaining that patriarchy will be abolished in the end times.